Structure of a sentence

Structure of a sentence

What is the predicate

Generally speaking, sentences, as well as their constituent parts, are not simply a sequence of words in which only the immediately preceding and following words matter. To decide whether a sentence is correctly formed, one must look at structural factors and not at simple concatenation. The sentences of human languages are characterized by being structurally complex. This means that the various sequences form syntactic units called syntactic constituents. These constituents are recognized by means of so-called constituence tests, which reveal the internal syntactic structure of sentences. Among the syntactic constituent tests are, for example, the alteration of the order of the elements, when these are moved in block, or when a pronoun replaces a part of speech only replaces specific sequences or «blocks».

The details of the generativist analysis of sentence structure have varied since the first proposal[1] in 1957. The original model used rewriting rules according to which structure is «generated» by a series of recursive substitutions. Thus, originally a sentence was the meeting of two heterogeneous elements called nominal syntagm (subject) and verbal syntagm (predicate). Consequently, at a higher level the structure was generated by the following rewriting rule or syntagmatic structure rule:

Compound sentence

The subject: the entity about which something is said. In structural terms, the subject is expressed as a noun phrase. Generally, it is expressed as a noun ((1)-(5)) or an explicit pronoun ((6)-(7)); it can be a simple subject (e.g. (1) – (3)) or quite complex (e.g. (4) – (5)):

->  Curso de hacker desde cero

REVIEW: In the grammatical analysis, we discuss the FIRST person, SECOND person, and THIRD person singular or plural. The subject personal pronouns that correspond to each person are presented below.

In English these same statements are expressed with the subject «There» or «It», but these subjects have no reference (ie. empty subject), but are expressed because English always requires the expression of an explicit subject.

If the subject reference is changed in the same expression, an explicit subject is usually included-in examples (12) and (13) it sounds rare to change the subject reference without including the explicit pronominal subject.

It is noteworthy that in the examples of (41) and (42) the explicit pronouns can be voiced without raising the tone of voice (as is done in English).    In expressing these utterances the inclusion of the explicit pronoun is sufficient to draw attention to the contrast/focus that the speaker wants to express.

Examples of sentences

The subject: the entity about which something is said. In structural terms, the subject is expressed as a noun phrase. Generally, it is expressed as a noun ((1)-(5)) or an explicit pronoun ((6)-(7)); it can be a simple subject (e.g. (1) – (3)) or quite complex (e.g. (4) – (5)):

->  Vectores en 3d ejercicios resueltos

REVIEW: In the grammatical analysis, we discuss the FIRST person, SECOND person, and THIRD person singular or plural. The subject personal pronouns that correspond to each person are presented below.

In English these same statements are expressed with the subject «There» or «It», but these subjects have no reference (ie. empty subject), but are expressed because English always requires the expression of an explicit subject.

If the subject reference is changed in the same expression, an explicit subject is usually included-in examples (12) and (13) it sounds rare to change the subject reference without including the explicit pronominal subject.

It is noteworthy that in the examples of (41) and (42) the explicit pronouns can be voiced without raising the tone of voice (as is done in English).    In expressing these utterances the inclusion of the explicit pronoun is sufficient to draw attention to the contrast/focus that the speaker wants to express.

Structure of an english sentence

1.- Structure of the main enunciative O. (= not subordinate and not interrogative). In these sentences the conjugated verb (= the personal form of the verb) is in position 2:1) Subject / 2) Conjugated verb/ 3) Complement(s)- Ik / drink / graag – rode wijn – in een restaurant (I like to drink red wine in a restaurant).

Inversion (subject-verb)2a- In the main interrogative O. the structure is that of subject-verb inversion:1) Conjugated verb/ 2) Subject/ 3) Complement(s)- Drink / ik / graag – rode wijn – in een restaurant? (Do I like to drink red wine in a restaurant?)

->  Frutas decoradas faciles de hacer

2b.- In the main enunciative O. In the main enunciative O. an emphatic complement can be advanced to ‘position 1’:1) Complement (emphatic) / 2) Conjugated verb / 3) SubjectIn principle all complements are susceptible to receive emphasis and be placed in position 1: – In een restaurant / drink / ik / graag – rode wijn (In a restaurant I like to drink red wine)- Rode wijn / drink / ik / graag – in een restaurant (Red wine [is what] I like to drink in a restaurant)- Graag / drink / ik / rode wijn – in een restaurant (I gladly drink red wine in a restaurant).

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